- Denial of benefits clause — ECT (Energy Charter Treaty) — Full protection and security
The landscape of investment arbitration has shifted dramatically, with Europe — and the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) — playing important roles in that transition. As the number of investment treaty arbitrations continues to mount, the ECT remains the most frequently invoked investment agreement with over 100 publicly known arbitrations filed to date. This chapter begins with some brief remarks on the genesis of the ECT. Each subsequent section focuses on a different aspect of the Treaty’s investment-related features, including the definitions of ‘Investor’ and ‘Investment’ in Article 1 of the ECT; the denial of benefits provision in Article 17(1), the Treaty’s substantive investment protections in Part III; and the dispute resolution mechanisms in Articles 26 and 27. Where useful, the chapter compares the Treaty’s text with analogous provisions in other investment agreements and addresses relevant arbitral decisions under the ECT.
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