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Editors and Contributors

Editorial team

Editor in Chief

Ian A Laird, Crowell & Moring LLP, Washington, DC

Senior Editorial Adviser

Todd Weiler, www.treatylaw.com

Bilateral Investment Treaties Editor

Professor Peter Muchlinski, School of Oriental and African Studies

Managing Editor

Frédéric Gilles Sourgens, Washburn University School of Law

Editor

Kabir Duggal, Senior Associate, Baker and McKenzie's, New York 

Borzu Sabahi, Curtis Mallet Prevost Colt & Mosle LLP

Assistant Editor

Andrea Ernst, Lecturer, Heidelberg Center for Latin America, Santiago de Chile

Editorial Board

Stanimir Alexandrov, Sidley Austin, Washington, DC
Yas Banifatemi,Shearman & Sterling, Paris
Doak Bishop, King & Spalding, Houston
Andrea Bjorklund, Faculty of Law, McGill University, Montreál
Gabriel Bottini, Department of International Affairs of the Attorney General's Office of the Republic of Argentina
Bernardo Cremades, B Cremades & Asociados, Madrid
Justin D’Agostino, Herbert Smith Freehills, Hong Kong
Rudolf Dolzer, Professor, Director, Institute of International Law, University of Bonn
Yves Fortier, Ogilvy Renault LLP, Montreál, Quebec, Canada
Kaj Hober, Mannheimer Swartling Advokatbyra AB, Stockholm
Vaughan Lowe, All Souls College, Oxford and Essex Court Chambers, London
Loukas Mistelis, Centre for Commercial Law Studies, Queen Mary University of London
Federico Ortino, School of Law, Kings College, London
Antonio R Parra, University College London; International Council for Commercial Arbitration; ICSID Review
Christoph H Schreuer, Wolf Theiss, Vienna
Audley Sheppard, Clifford Chance, London
Abby Cohen Smutny, White & Case LLP, Washington, DC
Brigitte Stern, University of Paris, Pantheon-Sorbonne
Robert Volterra, Latham & Watkins, London
Matthew Weiniger, Herbert Smith LLP, London

Associate Editors

Alan Alexandroff, Research Director, Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto and Senior Fellow, Centre for International Governance Innovation
Aurelia Antonietti, Consultant, ICSID
Séverine Beaudet, B Cremades & Asociados, Madrid
Jeffery P Commission, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, London
Alison FitzGerald, Ogilvy Renault LLP, Ottawa, Canada
John Gaffney, Donegans, Cork, Ireland
Norah Gallagher, Consultant, Investment Treaty Forum, BIICL, Visiting Senior Lecturer at Queen Mary, University of London and Adjunct Professor at Xi'ian Jiaotong University, China
Alexandre de Gramont, Crowell & Moring LLP, Washington, DC
Mark Kantor, Independent Arbitrator
Laura Halonen, Lalive, Geneva
Sabine Konrad, K&L Gates, Paris
Ignacio Madalena, B Cremades & Asociados, Madrid
Craig Miles, King & Spalding, Houston
Martins Paparinskis, University of Oxford
Klaus Reichert, Brick Court Chambers, London
Dominic Roughton, Herbert Smith, Tokyo
Noah Rubins, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Paris
Kristofer Schwarzrock, Rosen Hoover, Baltimore
Anthony Sinclair, Senior Associate, Allen & Overy, London
André von Walter, Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne

Contributors

Asim Akhund
Sean Aughey, Barrister, 11KBW, London
Lars Markert, Gleiss Lutz, Stuttgart
Alan S Alexandroff, Research Director, Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto and Senior Fellow, Centre for International Governance Innovation
Hannah Ambrose, Allen & Overy LLP, London
Aurelia Antonietti, Consultant, ICSID
Björn Arp
Freya Baetens, Assistant Professor in Public International law, Leiden University
Séverine Beaudet, B Cremades & Asociados, Madrid
Luc Bigel, Gide Loyrette Nouel AARPI, Paris
Doak Bishop, King & Spalding LLP
Andrea Bjorklund, Faculty of Law, McGill University, Montreál
Glenda Bleiberg, Consultant, Weil, Gotshal & Manges, Washington DC
Gabriel Bottini, Department of International Affairs of the Attorney General's Office of the Republic of Argentina
Chutinan Chutima, Associate, Reed Smith LLP, London
Anna Crevon, Salans & Associés SCP, Paris
Bernardo Cremades, B Cremades & Asociados, Madrid
Claire Crépet Daigremont, Doctorante at University of Paris II (Panthéon-Assas)
Jeffery P Commission, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, London
Julia-Didon Cayre, Berwin Leighton Paisner
Domenico Di Pietro, Chiomenti Studio Legale, Rome
Alexandre de Gramont, Crowell & Moring LLP, Washington, DC
Rudolf Dolzer, Professor, Director, Institute of International Law, University of Bonn
Maarten Draye, Associate, Hanotiau & van den Berg, Brussels
David Earnest, Hogan Lovells International LLP, London
Oke Ejims, PHD candidate, School of Law, University of Leeds
Andrea Ernst, Lecturer, Heidelberg Center for Latin America, Santiago de Chile
Uju Ezejiofor-Obasi, World Bank, Washington, DC
José Carlos Fernández Rozas, Profesora Titular de Derecho internacional privado, Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Susan D Franck, School of Law, Washington & Lee University
Alison FitzGerald, Ogilvy Renault LLP, Ottawa, Canada
Camille Fléchet, Allen & Overy LLP, Paris
Yves Fortier, Ogilvy Renault LLP, Montreál, Quebec, Canada
John Gaffney, Donegans, Cork, Ireland
Norah Gallagher, Consultant, Investment Treaty Forum, BIICL, Visiting Senior Lecturer at Queen Mary, University of London and Adjunct Professor at Xi'ian Jiaotong University, China
Todd Grierson-Weiler, www.treatylaw.com
Laura Halonen, Lalive, Geneva
Richard Happ
Martha Harrison
Kaj Hober, Mannheimer Swartling Advokatbyra AB, Stockholm
Anne K Hoffmann, Python and Peter, Geneva
Katona Janos
Marek Jeżewski, Institute of International Law, European Law and International Relations, Poland
Mark Kantor, Independent Arbitrator
Esther Kentin, Lecturer, Leiden University
Jonathan Ketcheson, Hogan Lovells, London
Sabine Konrad, K&L Gates, Paris
Dr. Anna Kozmenko, Associate, Schellenberg Wittmer's Dispute Resolution Group, Zurich
Prashant Kumar, Associate, Kapil Sapra & Associates
Ian A Laird, Crowell & Moring LLP, Washington, DC
Natalie M Lira, King & Spalding LLP, Houston, Texas
Ignacio Madalena, B Cremades & Asociados, Madrid
Ryan Manton, DPhil Candidate at the University of Oxford
Mahnaz Malik, Senior Partner, MMI Law
Craig Miles, King & Spalding, Houston
Peter Muchlinski, School of Oriental and African Studies
Armando Neris, Watson Farley & Williams
Andrew Newcombe, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Victoria
Eloïse Obadia, Partner, Derains & Gharavi, Washington DC
Esra Ogut, White & Case LLP
Martins Paparinskis, University of Oxford
David Pustzai, PhD Candidate at the University of Cambridge, Gonville & Caius College
Lucia Raimanova, Senior Associate - International Arbitration
Rekha Rangachari, Director of ADR Services for the New York Commercial Division of the AAA/ICDR
Klaus Reichert, Brick Court Chambers, London
Dominic Roughton, Herbert Smith, Tokyo
Noah Rubins, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Paris
Borzu Sabahi, Curtis Mallet Prevost Colt & Mosle LLP
Claudio O Saucedo Pagola, Deputy Director General for International Affairs, Directorate General of Foreign Investment, Mexico
Kristofer Schwarzrock, Rosen Hoover, Baltimore
Anthony Sinclair, Senior Associate, Allen & Overy, London
Wenhua Shan, University Tengfei Professor of International Law and the Dean of the School of Law of the Jiaotong University in Xi'an, China, and Professor of International Law at Oxford Brookes University, UK
Frédéric Gilles Sourgens, Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP, Washington, DC
Ole Spiermann, Bruun & Hjejle, Copenhagen, Denmark
Abhishek Tewari, Advocate, Supreme Court of India and the Delhi High Court 
Sherlin Tung, Litigation and Arbitration Counsel, Semperit Holdings AG, Vienna 
Anastasiya Ugale, Special Legal Consultant, Global Disputes practice group of Jones Day
Baiju S Vasani, Crowell & Moring, Washington, DC
Sarah Zagata Vasani, King & Spalding LLP, Washington, DC
Gita Veselá, CPB Management Tschechien, Prague
Jessica Villaverde, Crowell & Moring LLP, Washington, DC
André von Walter, Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne
Sheng Zhang, Researcher, Xi'an Jiaotong University Law School
Laura Yvonne Zielinski, Associate, Eversheds, Paris 

Previous Contributors

Roberto Aguirre Luzi, Angelica Andre, Walid Ben Hamida, Nicholas Birch, Caroline Blay, Markus Burgstaller, Johanne Cox, Nola Donachie, Alain Farhad, Joern Griebel, Maria Gritsenko, Farid Guemache, Florian Haugeneder, Carsten Kern, Kate Levine, Christina Loucas, Barbara Makant, Bendita Malakia, Fatema Merchant, Yemi Ojutiko, Christian Paquette, Sergio Puig de la Parra, Charles Raffin, Paula Ragonese, Benjamin Sanderson, Rajeev Sharma, Kevin Stemp, Katie Sutton, Kassi Tallent , Sylvia Tonova, Dierk Ullrich, Cristina Viteri, Romesh Weeramantry, Jonas Wetterfors, Gulnaar Zafar

Biographies

Ian A Laird BA (McGill), LLB (Windsor), LLM (Cantab), is a Partner in the Washington, DC office of Crowell & Moring LLP. He is licensed to practice as a Barrister & Solicitor in Ontario, Canada, and as a Special Legal Consultant in the District of Columbia. Laird’s practice as counsel and arbitrator is focused in the field of international investment law and arbitration. Listed in Who’s Who in Commercial Arbitration, he has spoken extensively and published numerous articles on international investment arbitration. With Todd Weiler, Borzu Sabahi and Frederic Sourgens, he is Co-editor of the Juris Publishing series Investment Treaty Arbitration and International Law (now in its 6th edition in 2013). Laird has been counsel in some of the leading investment arbitrations submitted under the NAFTA Chapter 11 investor-state provisions in matters related to the Canada-US softwood lumber dispute, the export of PCBs to the United States, the express courier service industry and the export of water. He has experience advising clients on issues related to bilateral and multilateral international agreements, such as the WTO Agreement, the NAFTA and Bilateral Investment Treaties. Laird has also served at several levels of government in Canada - most recently, he was appointed Chief of Staff to the Federal Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, 2003-2004, and acted as a senior ministerial assistant to the Ontario Minister of Energy and Minister of Citizenship, 1988-1990.

Todd Weiler, SJD & LLM (Michigan), LLM (Ottawa), LLB & MA (U. Western Ontario), Hons BA (Waterloo), is an international lawyer whose practice focuses exclusively on investment treaty arbitration. Since 1999, Dr Weiler has served as an arbitrator, consulting expert and co-counsel in dozens of disputes and arbitrations between investors and host states.Since 2007 Todd Weiler's name has appeared on the Who's Who list of international arbitrators, and since 2009 Chambers Global has included his name in its list of Canada's leading practitioners in international trade. Starting in 2011 the Global Arbitration Review recognized Dr Weiler for his expertise on the North American Free Trade Agreement, bilateral investment treaty arbitration and international economic law and policy.In 1999 Todd Weiler founded NAFTAClaims.com and in 2006 he co-founded Investmentclaims.com with Ian Laird. He has also published eight edited volumes on international investment law and arbitration since 2004, as well as many other academic articles and book chapters. Dr Weiler has served on numerous editorial boards sites since 2002 and he has chaired, moderated and/or spoken at over 100 different law schools, conferences, and seminars around the world.Todd Weiler's first monograph, A History of Investment Law: Equality & Discrimination Norms in Fresh Perspective, was published by Martinus Nijoff early in 2013.

Peter T Muchlinski, LLB (LSE), LLM (Cantab), FRSA is Professor in International Commercial Law at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London. He is the author of Multinational Enterprises and the Law (Second edition, Oxford University Press, 2007) and is co-editor (with Dr Federico Ortino and Professor Christoph Schreuer) of the Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law (Oxford University Press, 2008). He acts as an adviser to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) on investment law issues. He was Co-Rapporteur to the International Law Association Committee on the International Law on Foreign Investment and occasionally advises in international investment arbitrations.

Andrea Ernst is an international arbitration law clerk at Crowell & Moring in Washington DC. Prior to that she worked as a law clerk at the German Ministry of Economics in the Department of International Investment, World Bank and Debt Rescheduling. She studied law and economics in Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and holds a British and a German law degree as well as a degree in economics. As a Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law she focuses in her work on WTO law and international investment law. As well as writing her PhD thesis at the University of Heidelberg in international investment law she teaches at the Heidelberg Center for Latin America in Santiago de Chile.

Alan S Alexandroff is a Research Director at the Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto and a Senior Fellow at the Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI). At CIGI he launched the Global Institutional Reform (GIR) Workshop, a project designed to evaluate the adequacy of institutional reform proposals for the international system. From this Workshop a series of books entitled 'Can the World be Governed?' is being created. In addition, he has acted as outside counsel for a number of law firms where he has focused on international investment law cases. He also has served on the International Law Association's Committee on the International Law on Foreign Investment. This Committee recently published 'The Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law'. With Ian Laird he prepared the chapter on 'Compliance and Enforcement'.

Stanimir Alexandrov focuses his practice on international dispute resolution, including investor-state arbitration, international commercial arbitration, and trade disputes before the WTO. He has represented private parties and governments in arbitration before the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), and in ICC, UNCITRAL, and AAA international arbitrations, as well as governments in WTO disputes. He has been appointed to the ICSID's Panel of Arbitrators and Panel of Conciliators and serves as an arbitrator in a number of cases. He has authored several books and a number of articles on public international law and international arbitration topics.

Hannah Ambrose is an associate in the Arbitration Group in the London office of Allen & Overy LLP. She has advised on a number of commercial matters, including advising a large pharmaceutical company in two arbitrations against its excess liability insurers, advising in relation to injunction proceedings to prevent an insurer from challenging an arbitral award in the United States (C v. D reported at [2007] EWHC 1541 (Comm)), and advising on and recovering from insurers a full indemnity for property damage and business interruption losses following an explosion at a gas fired power station. Hannah also advises on issues of investor-state arbitration, most recently Biwater Gauff (Tanzania) Limited v. United Republic of Tanzania.

Aurélia Antonietti is currently a consultant with the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), where she also served as Counsel from 2003 to 2006. Ms Antonietti also worked as an associate with the law firm of Lévy Kaufmann-Kohler in Geneva from 2006 to 2008, and with the law firm of Gide Loyrette Nouel in Paris prior to 2003. She qualified as an Avocat with the Paris Bar and as a Solicitor of the Supreme Court of England and Wales.

Sean Aughey is an English barrister at 11KBW. He is independently ranked as leading junior in public international law and international arbitration. Sean regularly acts for claimants and respondents in investment treaty arbitrations under ICSID, SCC, UNCITRAL, and ad hoc Rules. Sean holds a BA in Law, an LL.M (2nd in year), and numerous academic prizes from Downing College, Cambridge. He is Adjunct Professor of Public International Law at Pepperdine University, and was previously a Visiting Scholar (EALS) at Harvard Law School. In addition to his private practice, Sean has experience of working in government and international organisations.

Freya Baetens completed her Ph.D. at Cambridge University (Gonville and Caius College) as a W.M. Tapp scholar, Honourary European Trust fellow and fellow of the Cambridge European Society, where she wrote a doctoral thesis on nationality-based discrimination in public international law, focusing on human rights, trade, and investment law (under supervision of Prof. James R. Crawford). Previously, she obtained a Cand.Jur./Lic.Jur. (BA/MA equiv.) from Ghent University and an LL.M. from Columbia University (BAEF/ Fulbright fellow). She is also a Research Fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law (Heidelberg) and an Editor of the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law. She continues her research on discrimination through her work for the ILC (assisting Prof. McRae; chairman MFN Working Group) and as a member of several ILA committees. She published on a range of topics, incl. treaty interpretation and fragmentation of international law, foreign investment and the Kyoto Protocol, investment practice of Islamic States, and EU external relations. Finally, she is also active in international legal practice, for example as tribunal assistant for ICSID annulment panels and counsel support in NAFTA cases.

Yas Banifatemi is a partner in Shearman & Sterling's International Arbitration Group and heads the firm's Public International Law practice. She has acted as Counsel in over 50 international arbitration cases, with a focus on international investment, oil & gas, mergers & acquisitions, and general commercial matters. She has also acted as arbitrator. She regularly advises and represents companies and governments on public international law issues. Yas Banifatemi holds a PhD in Public International Law from the University of Panthéon-Assas and an LLM from Harvard Law School. She teaches Public International Law and International Investment Law at the University of Panthéon-Sorbonne. She has authored numerous publications on international arbitration and public international law, in French and in English.

Glenda Bleiberg is a consultant in Weil, Gotshal & Manges’ International Arbitration & Trade practice in the Firm’s Washington DC office. She has legal expertise in international law issues including international arbitration and international trade. Specifically, she has been involved in Investor-State, State-State, and commercial arbitrations under ICSID, UNCITRAL, ICC and LCIA rules.  She has also worked in trade cases in Venezuela as well as in the United States. She has significant experience in oil and gas matters, having worked in the industry and participated in representation of clients in international arbitrations related to energy matters. She received her J.D. degree, cum laude, from the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello in Caracas. She has obtained a Master’s degree with honors in International Commercial Law from Université Paris X (Nanterre) and a Master’s in Law at Georgetown University Law Center. 

Chutinan Chutima, is an associate in the Structured Finance Group at Reed Smith LLP in London.  She obtained her LL.B. with First Class Honours from Chulalongkorn University.  Upon graduation, she obtained the Erasmus Mundus scholarship to pursue the European Master’s in Transnational Trade Law and Finance program in Spain, the Netherlands, and France where she focused on international trade law and intellectual property law.  After having obtained her European Master’s she practiced in the area of intellectual property in Thailand working with WIPO and the Thai Ministry of Commerce.  She later pursued an LL.M. at Columbia University and was a foreign associate with the New York office of Jones Day prior to joining Reed Smith in 2014. Chutinan is currently admitted to practice law in New York and Thailand.

Lara Clarke is a Solicitor Advocate (All Higher Courts) who qualified in January 2005. She is part of Debevoise & Plimpton LLP's International Dispute Resolution Group and her practice specialises in international arbitration. Lara recently obtained a post graduate diploma from Queen Mary University London in association with the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators in 'International & Comparative Commercial Arbitration and Trade and Investment Dispute Settlement'. She has authored and co-authored a number of articles including 'Ascertaining the Contents of the Applicable Law in International Commercial Arbitration' (International Law Association); 'Mediation in the post Halsey Era' (IBA Mediation Newsletter) and 'Why does Mediation Work (where negotiations have failed)?' (Lloyds List).

Luc Bigel is a French-Canadian lawyer with a degree in private, European law from the Université Paris XII (France) where he also qualified in international business litigation. He holds an LLM from Johannes Gutenberg University (Mainz, Germany) with a focus on international & European law as well as German contract law. His master in business law was acquired from the Université Paris-Dauphine. He trained in international commercial arbitration in France and Germany and now practices mainly in the field of maritime, aviation, transportation and insurance law.

Doak Bishop has over 30 years of legal practice, focusing on international arbitration and litigation of oil and gas, energy, construction, and environmental disputes. He is board Certified in Civil Trials. He served as sole, chair, party-appointed, and institution-appointed arbitrator in ICC, AAA, IACAC, and UNCITRAL arbitrations. Bishop is editor and contributor of, The Art of Advocacy in International Arbitration (Juris Publishing 2004); co-author with Professor James Crawford and Professor Michael Reisman of, Foreign Investment Disputes: Cases, Materials and Commentaries (Kluwers, 2005); Bishop, International Arbitration of Petroleum Disputes: The Development of a Lex Petrolea; 23 Y.B. Com. Arb. 1131 (1998); Bishop & Reed, Practical Guidelines for Interviewing, Selecting and Challenging Party-Appointed Arbitrators in International Commercial Arbitration, 14 Arb. Int'l 395 (1998); Bishop & Russell, Survey of Arbitration Awards Under Chapter 11 of the North American Free Trade Agreement, 19 J. Int'l Arb. 505 (2002); Bishop, Dimitroff & Miles, Strategic Options Available When Catastrophe Strikes the Major International Energy Project, 36(4) Tex. Int'l L.J. 635 (2001). He lectures on international arbitration to various international groups.

Andrea K Bjorklund teaches courses in international arbitration and litigation, international trade, international investment, conflict of laws, and contracts. Her primary research focus is investor-State arbitration, and she has written extensively on the subject. She is co-author of Chapter 11 in Investment Disputes under NAFTA: An Annotated Guide to NAFTA. Among her other works are articles in the Hastings Law Journal and the Virginia Journal of International Law and a chapter in the Oxford Handbook of International Investment Law. Prior to entering the academy, Professor Bjorklund worked for the U.S. Department of State defending the U.S. government in investor-State arbitrations brought under the NAFTA. She is a graduate of Yale Law School.

Gabriel Bottini leads the Department of International Affairs of the Attorney General's Office of the Republic of Argentina. The Attorney General's Office defends Argentina before international arbitral tribunals and other international courts. Mr. Bottini has extensive experience in ICSID and UNCITRAL arbitrations, as well as in arbitrations under ICC rules. He teaches international public law at the University of Buenos Aires and at the University of Palermo in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He has lectured at many universities and international institutions around the world on issues of investment litigation and international law, and has published extensively on such matters. He has been awarded scholarships by the Fulbright Commission and other international institutions. Mr. Bottini holds a law degree from the University of Buenos Aires and an LLM from New York University School of Law.

Chester Brown is Assistant Legal Adviser at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. He was formerly a Senior Associate in the International Law and International Arbitration Group at Clifford Chance LLP, London. Dr Brown completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Melbourne (BA (French and German) (Hons), LLB (Hons)), and also holds a BCL (Distinction) from the University of Oxford, and a PhD in public international law from the University of Cambridge. He is the author of A Common Law of International Adjudication, which was published by Oxford University Press in 2007. The views expressed by Dr Brown in head notes and comments are strictly personal, and not necessarily those of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office or any other department of Her Majesty's Government.

Julia-Didon Cayre Cayre is a UK solicitor and an associate in Berwin Leighton Paisner’s Arbitration Group. Her practice focuses on international commercial and investment treaty arbitration. Prior to joining BLP, she worked at Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer (London and Milan), at Crowell & Moring (London), and taught seminars in commercial law at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Julia-Didon holds an LLB from Queen Mary, University of London and an LLM from the London School of Economics. She is bilingual in French and English and fluent in Italian.

Jeffery P Commission is an associate in the London office of Freshfields and is a member of the International Arbitration Group. He has experience representing domestic and foreign clients in matters of general commercial litigation, international arbitration, internal investigations and regulatory actions. He has particular expertise in matters of international dispute settlement, including land and maritime boundary disputes, and international investment disputes arising out of bilateral investment treaties. He has common law and civil law degrees from McGill University, and an LLM from the University of London in international dispute settlement. He is a member of the New York bar.

Bernardo M Cremades is senior partner of the Spanish law firm B. Cremades y Asociados and Catedrático of the Universidad de Madrid. His practice is focused on international commercial arbitration and transnational investment disputes. He has acted as counsel, party-appointed arbitrator and president of arbitral tribunals in more than 200 arbitrations. His professional experience in the field of arbitration includes acting in proceedings under the auspices of all major international arbitration institutions.

Bernardo M Cremades is the leading Spanish international arbitration practitioner ('number one practitioner in Spain for commercial arbitration legal expertise' and 'one of the top names in the industry', Who's Who legal, July 2005).

Justin D’Agostino is the Global Head of Herbert Smith Freehills' Disputes practice and the firm's joint Managing Partner for Asia and Australia. Considered by Chambers Asia-Pacific as "one of the few true experts in international arbitration", Justin has established a market-leading reputation in commercial arbitration, investor-state disputes and international law. He appears before tribunals all over the world and recently acted for Malaysia in the US$1 billion Railway Land arbitration with Singapore. Justin also sits as arbitrator. He is a Visiting Professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing, and was a member of the sub-committee of the Law Reform Commission of Hong Kong which reviewed the law on Third Party Funding in Arbitration. He is admitted as a solicitor in Hong Kong and a solicitor advocate in England & Wales. Justin is a member of the Council of the HKIAC, a board member of the Arbitration Institute of the SCC, an honorary Fellow of ACICA, a founding member of HK45, a Councillor of the LCIA's APAC Users' Council and is a member of the Consultation Board of Practical Law's Arbitration Service. He was a winner of the Chambers Asia-Pacific Outstanding Contribution to the Legal Profession Award 2017 and of the FT Asia-Pacific Innovative Lawyers Outstanding Individuals Awards 2016. Justin was also named the Asia-Pacific Arbitration Practitioner of the Year 2016 by Asialaw. Personally, committed to diversity and inclusion in the legal profession, Justin was named Community Business's LGBT Executive Sponsor 2016 which is awarded to recognise a senior executive who has used his influence to promote LGBT inclusion and, since 2013, he has been listed in the FT as one of the leading "OUTstanding Executives", which recognises professionals who have made a difference in the LGBT community.
 

Claire Crépet Daigremont is member of an annual chronicle on investment cases directed by Professors Charles Leben and Ibrahim Fadlallah: "Investissements internationaux et arbitrage", in Les cahiers de l'arbitrage, La Gazette du Palais, Paris, since November 2003. She has participated at the Research Centre of the Hague Academy of International Law 2004, on 'New Aspects of International Investment Law', directed by Philippe Kahn and Thomas W. Wälde. She has also intervened at a conference about new developments of transnational investment disputes (Paris, May 2004): 'Traitement national et traitement de la nation la plus favorisée dans la jurisprudence arbitrale récente', (published in Le contentieux arbitral transnational relatif à l'investissement - Nouveaux développements, Charles LEBEN (dir.), Anthémis-LGDJ, 2006, 396 p., pp. 107-162).

Domenico Di Pietro is a member of the International Law and International Arbitration Group at Chiomenti Studio Legale, Rome. He is admitted to practice in Italy (Avvocato) and in England and Wales (Solicitor). Domenico has acted as counsel in several commercial and investment arbitrations, both ad hoc and administered. He has served as sole arbitrator and party-appointed arbitrator in several domestic and international disputes. Domenico has also experience in sport arbitration. Domenico has authored numerous articles on international commercial arbitration and investment arbitration. His publications include a volume entitled Enforcement of International Arbitration Awards, the New York Convention of 1958 (Cameron May, 2001, co-author). He is also co-editor of Recognition and Enforcement of Arbitration Agreements and Foreign Arbitral Awards - The New York Convention in Practice (2008).

Alexandre de Gramont is a Partner in the International Dispute Resolution Practice at Crowell & Moring LLP. He has represented both investors and governments in investor-state arbitration at ICSID and in ad hoc proceedings under UNCITRAL rules. The matters he has handled arise from the Energy Charter Treaty, NAFTA, and CAFTA-DR, as well as from numerous bilateral investment treaties and domestic investment laws. In addition to investor-state arbitration, Mr. de Gramont has also handled commercial arbitration in many of the world's leading international arbitration fora (e.g., the ICC, LCIA, SCC and AAA/ICDR). A frequent speaker and writer on international arbitration issues, Mr. de Gramont is also an Advisory Board Member of the Institute for Transnational Arbitration and an Associate Editor of Transnational Dispute Management.

Rudolf Dolzer received his legal education in Germany (Heidelberg University) and in the United States (Harvard Law School). From 1992 to 1996 he was Director General of the Federal Chancellor in Bonn. He has written extensively on foreign investment law and in 1995 he published, together with Margrete Stevens, the treaties on 'Bilateral Investment Treaties'. In 2008 he published, together with Christoph Schreuer, a book on 'Principles of International Investment Treaties'. He is a member of various boards of German and international institutions.

Maarten Draye was admitted to the Brussels bar in 2007, where he works as an associate at Hanotiau & van den Berg. His practice focuses on both domestic and international commercial litigation and arbitration. He obtained a Law Degree (Lic.) at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in 2004 and a Master in Economic Policy in 2005. In 2006, he read for an LL.M in International Business Law at Queen Mary University of London, where he was part of the team that won the 1st prize overall in the 13th Willem C. Vis Moot in International Commercial Arbitration. Being a Dutch native speaker, he is fluent in English and French and has a knowledge of German.

Kabir Duggal is a senior associate in the International Arbitration group of Baker and McKenzie's New York office.  He has been involved in several important arbitration proceedings under rules of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), and United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) in the oil, gas, cement, and telecommunications industries.  His experience includes disputes under numerous bilateral and multilateral investment treaties (including the Energy Charter Treaty) in South Asia, Latin America, Central Asia, Middle East, and Africa. Mr. Duggal is a Lecturer-in-Law at Columbia Law School teaching "International Investment Law and Arbitration."  Mr. Duggal also gives lectures at the Georgetown University Law School and Fordham Law School. He serves as the head of the advisory team on matters relating to procedure on investmentclaims.com hosted by Oxford University Press. He also serves on ICSID Review's Peer Review Board and regularly speaks and publishes on international law and international arbitration issues. Mr. Duggal is a graduate of the University of Mumbai (University Medal), University of Oxford (DHL-Times of India Scholar) and NYU School of Law (Hauser Global Scholar).  He is admitted to practice law in India, England and Wales (Solicitor) and New York. 

Uju Ezejiofor-Obasi is an independent legal consultant. Prior to moving to the Los Angeles area, she was a consultant with the Conflict Resolution System of the World Bank in Washington DC. She had also worked as a Legal Officer at the International Monetary Fund, a Legal Intern at the United Nations in New York and as a volunteer research assistant at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law (BIICL). Additionally, she has work experience in the legal sector in Nigeria and England, and in the Nigerian banking sector. She received her basic law degree (LLB) from the University of Nigeria, an LLM from the London School of Economics and Political Science where she was awarded the Graduate Merit Award for excellent writing skills. Miss Ezejiofor holds a PhD from Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London with a focus on the relationship between domestic courts and international investment arbitral tribunals. She is licensed to practice law in Nigeria and in New York.

Alison FitzGerald practices in the areas of international trade and customs law, international arbitration, administrative law, government contracting, and commercial litigation, including constitutional law disputes. She has served as both counsel and tribunal secretary in the course of her work in the field of arbitration, having been involved in both investor-state and international commercial arbitrations, as well as a sports anti-doping arbitration. Prior to obtaining her joint LLB/BCL at McGill University, Ms. FitzGerald worked as a special trade assistant for a Washington-based law firm focussing on trade remedy matters, customs classification matters, and a WTO challenge. She is a member of the Ontario Bar (2006) and the New York Bar (2007).

Yves Fortier is Chairman and a senior partner of Ogilvy Renault LLP, and former Canadian Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the United Nations. In recent years, he has concentrated his practice in the field of international arbitration, serving as an arbitrator and chairman in over 100 arbitrations. Mr Fortier has served on both ad hoc international arbitration tribunals and tribunals constituted by different arbitral institutions, including the International Arbitration Court of the International Chamber of Commerce (Paris), the London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA), the American Arbitration Association (New York), the Court of Arbitration for Sport (Lausanne), the Zurich Chamber of Commerce and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. Among his accolades, Mr Fortier was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1991 and made a Companion of the Order in 1994, the highest level of the Order. In 2006, Mr Fortier was appointed an Officer of L'Ordre National du Quebec and on January 1, 1998, he was elected President of the LCIA, the first non-European to hold this position. He served as President until June 30, 2001, at which time he became Honorary Vice-President of the Court.

Susan D Franck is an Associate Professor at the Washington & Lee University School of Law. After receiving her J.D. at the University of Minnesota and receiving a Fulbright Grant to obtain an LLM at the University of London, she practiced international dispute resolution on both sides of the Atlantic. Professor Franck was an associate at Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering where she was involved with one of the first investment treaty arbitrations against the Czech Republic and was later a senior associate at Allen & Overy in London, England, where she was involved with arbitrations involving investment treaties and underlying commercial agreements. Professor Franck writes and teaches in the area of international economic dispute resolution. She was selected as a "New Voice" by the American Society of International Law (2007) and chosen for the International Who's Who of Commercial Arbitration (2008). Professor Franck is currently a member of the Advisory Board of the Institute for Transnational Arbitration.

John Gaffney practices in the areas of domestic and international arbitration in addition to his corporate/commercial law practice. He has previously worked with the United Nations Compensation Commission in Geneva, Switzerland, and the international law firm, Skadden, Arps in London, England. John has published widely on international arbitration, including investment treaty arbitration and is an assistant editor with two leading online international arbitration law services, including Investmentclaims.com. He is also a member of various arbitration panels, including the CIETAC Panel of International Arbitrators, the WIPO Domain Name Panellists, and the Panel of Arbitrators of the Law Society of Ireland.

Norah Gallagher is Director of the Investment Treaty Forum at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law. Before joining the Institute in January 2008, she worked at Herbert Smith where she advised on a wide range of issues relating to international arbitration and public international law including investment treaty arbitrations under BITs and multilateral treaties. Previously, she was a Research Fellow of the Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge working primarily in international dispute resolution, including land and maritime boundary disputes, investment disputes under NAFTA, bilateral investment treaties and the Energy Charter Treaty. Norah is also a Senior Visiting lecturer on the International Trade and Investment Dispute Settlement course at Queen Mary, University of London.

Avanthi Gunatilake is an associate in the Finance Group of Mayer Brown International LLP. She advises on international finance transactions focusing on project finance and asset based lending. Avanthi obtained a LLB from University of Colombo and in 2005 she received an LLM from University College London.

Laura Halonen is an associate with Lalive in Geneva, specialising in acting as counsel for states in investment treaty and contractual arbitrations, while also acting in private arbitrations under various rules, as both counsel and secretary to tribunals. A native of Finland, Laura holds an MA and a BCL from the University of Oxford, is a qualified solicitor of the Supreme Court of England and Wales and speaks fluent Finnish, English, and French.

Kaj Hobér is a Partner in Mannheimer Swartling, Stockholm, Sweden and Professor of East European Law at Uppsala University, where he also teaches international arbitration and international investment and trade law. He has acted as counsel and arbitrator (including chairmanships) in more than 300 international arbitrations, including representation of the claimant in the first ECT award, as well as involvement in many other investment arbitrations. He is Chair of the IBA sub-committee on Investment Treaty Arbitration. He is the author and editor of several books on arbitration and has published numerous articles on international arbitration, Russian, Soviet and East European law and international investment and trade law.

Anne K Hoffmann is a senior associate at the offices of Python & Peter in Geneva which she joined in 2005 after having practiced in London for several years. A lawyer qualified to practice both in Germany as well as in England & Wales, Anne focuses on international commercial and investment arbitration where she regularly acts as counsel in disputes arising under all major institutional rules (in particular ICC, UNCITRAL, LCIA, ICSID) as well as in ad hoc proceedings. She advises clients on all matters concerning arbitration, including Bilateral Investment Treaties and the Energy Charter Treaty. Anne has also served both as administrative secretary to arbitral tribunals and as arbitrator.

Anne is a member of the Committee on the Law of Foreign Investment of the ILA, has taught investment arbitration at the University of Lausanne and regularly speaks and publishes on arbitration issues. She holds a LL.M. from University College London and speaks English, German, Russian and French.

Mark Kantor is an Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University Law Center and a Fellow at the Vale Columbia Center for Sustainable International Investment (a joint undertaking of Columbia Law School and the Earth Institute at Columbia University). Until he retired, he was a partner in Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy's Corporate and Project Finance Groups. Kantor is listed in Who's Who Commercial Arbitration, Chambers USA (International Arbitration), and The Best Lawyers in America (International Arbitration; Washington, D.C.). He is Vice-Chair of the DC Bar International Dispute Resolution Committee (Chair, 2004-2007). He is also a Fellow of The Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and Chair of the Washington, D.C. chapter. Kantor is the author of Valuation for Arbitration, as well as numerous articles on international arbitration and business matters.

Esther Kentin is lecturer at Leiden University and holds a law degree from the University of Amsterdam (LLM). She conducted research at the United Nations Environment Programme, Kenya, and lectured at the Free University Amsterdam and Erasmus University Rotterdam in international law, economic law and environmental law. Her interests lie in the fields of investment law and good governance, and Netherlands investment treaties.

Jonathan Ketcheson is an associate in Hogan Lovells' international arbitration group. He has experience advising States and investors in international disputes, including proceedings before ICSID and other international tribunals. Before joining Hogan Lovells, Jonathan worked as a Research Associate to Professor James Crawford SC at the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law (University of Cambridge). He was also an associate to Justice Susan Crennan AC of the High Court of Australia, and an assistant to the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry. He holds an LLM in public international from the University of Cambridge and is currently completing a doctorate at the University of Cambridge entitled "The Application of Domestic Law by International Tribunals".

Yun-I Kim holds a law degree from Cologne University Law School and works as case assistant to Professor Dr. Karl-Heinz Böckstiegel. She has been designated Secretary to the Tribunal in several investment arbitration cases and is currently working on her Ph.D. thesis in international investment law. She also works as research assistant in international investment arbitration to Dr. Richard Happ, Luther law firm. Prior to that she worked as research assistant at the Institute of Air and Space Law and the Chair for Public International Law, European and International Economic Law, University of Cologne.

Joachim Knoll is a Partner with the firm of Brown & Page in Geneva. He is admitted to the New York State Bar. Having specialized in international arbitration since 1998, he has acted as counsel and/or sole arbitrator in ad hoc proceedings and in cases under the rules of the ICC, ICSID, and the Swiss Rules, often involving States or State-owned entities, and questions of public international law. He has been counsel and secretary to arbitral tribunals in a number of bilateral investment treaty- and contract-based arbitrations under the ICSID arbitration rules, as well as in ICSID annulment proceedings. Joachim was educated in Germany and France and also holds LL.M. degrees from Boston University and King's College London. He has practiced law in Paris and Geneva and is fluent in English, German, and French.

Sabine Konrad is a partner in the Paris office of K&L Gates LLP. She specializes in International Dispute Resolution and in particular International Arbitration and Public International Law. She regularly advises investors and governments on matters of investment protection. Sabine also sits as arbitrator in investment treaty cases. She was closely involved in setting up the Frankfurt International Arbitration Centre in 2005, which serves as a cooperation facility of ICSID for investment treaty arbitrations in Germany. In 2007, she was designated by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany to the Panel of Arbitrators of the World Bank's International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

Dr. Anna Kozmenko is an associate in Schellenberg Wittmer's Dispute Resolution Group in Zurich. Her practice focuses on international arbitration. She has worked on commercial arbitrations and investment treaty arbitrations, representing states, state-owned entities and private companies across a wide range of sectors with a particular emphasis on natural resources, telecommunications and construction. Dr. Kozmenko’s experience includes arbitrations as party counsel or arbitral secretary before all major arbitral institutions, including the ICC, LCIA, SCAI, ICDR, SCC, ICSID, as well as ad hoc arbitrations under the UNCITRAL Rules. Dr. Anna Kozmenko is an Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Arkansas School of Law, where she teaches international commercial arbitration. Dr. Kozmenko regularly publishes and speaks on international commercial and investment arbitration. She currently serves as a member of the Global Advisory Board of ICDR Young & International and as the Immediate Past Co-Chair of the American Bar Association Section of International Law’s Russia-Eurasia Committee.

Prashant Kumar is a commercial litigator and an arbitration lawyer. He is currently working as an associate with Kapil Sapra & Associates. Prashant’s practice comprises of advising clients on a wide range of legal issues, both corporate and commercial pertaining to the drafting and filing of petitions, conducting court and arbitration proceedings (both domestic & international). Previously, he was working with Ratan Kumar Singh, Director, Ciarb, London. Prashant is affiliated to Young ICCA, ICC YAF, LCIA (Young International Arbitration Group), SIAC (Young Singapore International Arbitration Centre) and Bar Council of Delhi, India. He completed his B.A. LL.B. (Hons.) from Gujarat National Law University (GNLU), one of the best law schools in India.

Bernhard Lauterburg is an associate at Prager Dreifuss AG in Berne, Switzerland and admitted to all Swiss courts. His principal area of work is Swiss and EU competition law. He holds law degrees from the University of Berne and the Georgetown University with a particular emphasis on international trade regulation and international economic relations.

Natalie M Lira received her J.D. from South Texas College of Law (2003) and is licensed to practice law in Texas. She also holds a degree in Government from the University of Texas at Austin (B.A., 1999). Natalie is currently working at King & Spalding LLP as Senior Research Specialist where a majority of her research is focused on Foreign, International and Comparative Law.

Ben Love is an associate at Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer LLP, Paris. Mr Love has worked on cases representing both government and private clients in international litigation and arbitration matters, including proceedings under the ICSID, ICC, and UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. The disputes have arisen out of sectors as diverse as investment, energy, telecommunications, geotechnology, hotels, agriculture, and public utilities. In addition, he advises clients on investment structuring for treaty protection, as well as on the enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards. Before joining Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Mr Love was an associate at King & Spalding LLP, and a clerk at the Secretariat of the International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC).

Vaughan Lowe QC; Chichele Professor of Public International Law and Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford University and Barrister, Essex Court Chambers, London. Vaughan Lowe has taught at the Universities of Cambridge, Manchester and Cardiff, and as a visiting Professor in China, Finland, Greece and the USA; he has also written extensively on international law. He has sat on a number of ICSID and NAFTA tribunals, and practices in international and English courts and tribunals. He is a bencher of Gray's Inn, and an associè of the Institut de droit international.

Mahnaz Malik is a Senior Partner MMI Law. After obtaining a B.A. (Hons) and M.A in law from Cambridge University as a British Council Chevening scholar, Mahnaz qualified as an Attorney at Law in New York, Solicitor in England & Wales and an Advocate in Pakistan. Before establishing MMI Law, Mahnaz advised companies and governments for over half a decade at international law firm Simmons & Simmons' London and Hong Kong offices in a range of sectors. She has advised on arbitrations conducted under the auspices of leading international arbitral institutions such as the LCIA, ICC and ICSID, and regularly speaks, advises and writes on investment and sustainable development related issues. Her recent work with the IISD includes advising a group of 19 Southern and Eastern African countries on their regional investment agreement; a grouping of South African states on their regional foreign investment policy; two Asian states on negotiations with more developed counterparts and a Central Asian state on its model investment treaty. She has also been instrumental in developing and delivering a 14 day training course on international investment treaty negotiations and disputes for over 30 government officials from Latin America.

Mahnaz is a member of the ICC Commissions on Arbitration and Anti-Corruption. She was recently awarded the Financial Times Legal Innovator of the Year 2007 Award in the UK. She was listed as a "Leadership Maker" in Asian Legal Business's 100 Hot Lawyers 2005.

Sèbastien Manciaux teaches International Investment Law to students in Masters of Law at the University of Burgundy. He also teaches International Investment Law as visiting Professor (Tunis 2007, Marrakech 2008) and is researcher for CREDIMI, (Research Center on Investment and International Trade Law). He has written several articles dealing with International Arbitration and/or Investment Law. Mr. Manciaux's main work is his book on ICSID activity: Investissements ètrangers et arbitrage entre Etats et ressortissants d'autres Etats. 30 annèes d'activitè du Cirdi, Travaux du Credimi, vol. 24, Paris, Litec, 2004, 727 p. He also acts as counsel in several arbitration proceedings (under the aegis of ICSID and the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce), and as adviser on International law, investor-State dispute settlement and arbitration.

Ryan Manton is a DPhil Candidate at the University of Oxford. He is admitted as a Barrister and Solicitor of the High Court of New Zealand. He has worked as a judge's clerk at the New Zealand Court of Appeal and has practised law in Wellington, Auckland and Paris. He holds BA (Hons) and LLB (Hons) degrees from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, and a BCL (Distinction) from the University of Oxford where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar.

Lars Markert is an associated partner in the international arbitration and corporate departments of Gleiss Lutz's Stuttgart office. Currently he is on a long-term secondment with the international dispute resolution group of the Japanese law firm Nishimura & Asahi in Tokyo. He is admitted to the German and New York bars and advises clients in both investor-state and international commercial arbitrations. Besides his German legal education, Lars holds law degrees from France (Aix-en-Provence) and the US (Georgetown University). Furthermore, he holds a PhD in investment arbitration from the University of Cologne. He is an academic advisor to the International Investment Law Centre Cologne (IILCC), a member of the working group on International Investment Law of the German Branch of the International Law Association (ILA) and regularly speaks and publishes on issues of investment law and arbitration.

Loukas Mistelis is the Clive Schitthoff Professor of Transnational Law and Arbitration and Director of the School of International Arbitration, Queen Mary University of London. Educated in Greece, France, Germany and Japan, he has worked in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. He is fluent in English, German and Greek, has a working knowledge of French and basic knowledge of Spanish, Polish and Russian. He is listed in Who's Who Commercial Arbitration and acts as an arbitrator in international cases. He has published widely on international arbitration, ADR, international commercial law and comparative law and his publications include 10 books. He is also Editor of the Oxford International Arbitration Monograph Series, Arbitration International, Global Arbitration Review, and World Arbitration Reporter.

Nina P Mocheva is an investment policy and promotion specialist at the Foreign Investment Advisory Service of the World Bank Group, where she is a part of the Investment Generation Unit. Her most recent work includes a new FIAS global benchmarking initiative for measuring the ease of establishing and operating a foreign-owned business in countries across the world. As a part of this FIAS project, Nina is responsible for three surveys on currency convertibility and repatriation, expropriation, and international arbitration. Prior to joining the World Bank, she practiced with the International Arbitration and Litigation Group of White & Case LLP in Washington, DC. Ms. Mocheva holds a LL.M. in International Legal Studies from Georgetown University as a Fulbright scholar and a master's degree in law from Sofia University, Bulgaria.

Armando Neris was admitted as a barrister and solicitor of the High Court of New Zealand in 2012. He is a graduate of Victoria University of Wellington, from which he earned a Bachelor of Laws with first class honours (LL.B. Hons) and a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in political science and international relations. He also holds a master’s in law (LL.M.) from Columbia University in the City of New York, where he was a research assistant to Professor George A. Bermann, an editor of the American Review of International Arbitration and was recognised as a James Kent Scholar upon graduation. Prior to reading for his Master of Laws between 2015/16, he was employed as a dispute resolution solicitor for almost four years at New Zealand’s pre-eminent law firm, Chapman Tripp. From mid-2016 onwards, he is employed as a dispute resolution associate, focused on international commercial and investment treaty arbitration, in the London office of Watson Farley & Williams

Andrew Newcombe, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Victoria. Prior to joining the UVic Law Faculty in 2002, he worked with the International Arbitration and Public International Law groups at Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Paris. While at Freshfields, he represented clients in international commercial arbitrations, investment treaty arbitrations and was a member of the legal team that represented the State of Bahrain before the International Court of Justice in Case Concerning Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions. Professor Newcombe researches and teaches in the area of international economic law, international arbitration and commercial and consumer law. He operates the investment treaty arbitration resource website (ita) and publishes in the area of international investment law.

Eloïse Obadia is partner at Derains & Gharavi in Washington, DC. She focuses her practice on international arbitration, including investor-state arbitration. She has represented private parties and governments in arbitration before the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and in UNCITRAL and ad hoc international arbitrations.  Prior to joining Derains & Gharavi, she was Team Leader at ICSID. She served as Secretary of tribunals, conciliation commissions and ad hoc committees in more than 60 proceedings brought under the ICSID Convention, Additional Facility Rules and UNCITRAL Rules. She also served as Coordinator in an Expert Determination under the Indus Waters Treaty. Eloïse is adjunct associate professor at American University, Washington College of Law where she teaches Investment Treaty Arbitration, and guest lecturer on International Economic Litigation Law, Master 2, International Economic Law, University of Panthéon–Assas. Before joining ICSID, Eloïse was an associate at Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle, Paris.  She is admitted to the Paris and New York Bars. 

Esra Ogut is an associate with the international arbitration group of White & Case LLP (Paris/Istanbul). She represents clients from different sectors and countries under both civil and common law on various stages of arbitration proceedings and international disputes. She received her Master's Degree (LL.M.) from the Columbia University with a particular focus on international commercial and investment arbitration. Following her LL.M. studies, she worked at the International Court of Arbitration (ICC) New York office (SICANA) with the North America case management team. She is fluent in English, French and Turkish (native).

Federico Ortino is a Reader in International Economic Law in the School of Law at King's College London. He is a member of the ILA Committee on International Trade Law and Co-Rapporteur to the ILA Committee on the Law of Foreign Investment. Previously, Director of the Investment Treaty Forum, the British Institute of International and Comparative Law in London (2005-2007); Adjunct Professor at the Universities of Florence and Trento (2002-2007); Emile Noël Fellow and Fulbright Scholar at the NYU Jean Monnet Center in New York (2004); and Legal Officer at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2003). He is a qualified attorney in Italy and in the state of New York. He holds: LLB, University of Florence; LLM, Georgetown University Law Center; PhD, European University Institute.

Martins Paparinskis is undertaking a D Phil at the University of Oxford, writing his thesis on customary standards in investment protection law. He is presently a Commercial Bar and AHRC Scholar and has been a Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer and Chevening Scholar. Before commencing his D Phil research, Martins received M Jur (Dist) (Clifford Chance Prize) and M Phil (Dist) degrees from the University of Oxford. He has written and spoken in conferences about investment protection law. A native of Latvia, Martins speaks fluent Latvian, English and Russian, and has some knowledge of French.

Antonio R Parra is Secretary General of the International Council for Commercial Arbitration, a Consultant with the World Bank and Visiting Professor of the Faculty of Laws, University College London. From 1999 to 2005, he served as the first Deputy Secretary-General of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and from 1990 to 1999 he was Legal Adviser, (ICSID). His earlier positions include Senior Counsel, ICSID; Senior Counsel, World Bank; Counsel, World Bank; and Assistant Legal Counsel, OPEC Fund for International Development. At the World Bank and ICSID, Mr. Parra was a member of the staff teams that worked on the establishment of the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and the preparation of the World Bank Guidelines on the Treatment of Foreign Direct Investment. He was Managing Editor of the ICSID Review - Foreign Investment Law Journal from 1987 to 2003 and Editor-in-Chief from 2004 to 2007. He is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, an Editorial Board member of The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals and a Consultative Member of the Investment Treaty Forum at the British Institute of International and Comparative Law.

Georgios Petrochilos holds degrees from Athens, Strasbourg, and Oxford, and is qualified as an Avocat in France and an Advocate of the Supreme Court in Greece. He has acted as counsel and arbitrator in cases under the Rules of the ICC, UNCITRAL, LCIA, SCC, PCA, ICSID, ICSID Additional Facility and the Cairo Centre, and before the International Court of Justice. Georgios is a representative of Greece in UNCITRAL's Working Group II, member of the International Commercial Arbitration Committee of the ILA, Member of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, and a rapporteur for the Institute for Transnational Arbitration. He has published extensively, including the monograph Procedural Law in International Arbitration (OUP, 2004) and (as co-author) the forthcoming 4th edition of Craig Park and Paulsson on ICC Arbitration (OUP, 2009).

David Pusztai is a PhD Candidate in international law at the University of Cambridge, Gonville & Caius College. Before embarking on his PhD, he interned at Shearman & Sterling LLP and worked on several international investment disputes. His current research investigates the role and standards of causation in the law of State responsbility. He holds degrees from Eötvös Loránd University (JD '11) and the University of Oxford (MJur '12).

Paula Betina Ragonese is Italian-Argentinean and was born in 1979 at Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. She graduated with honours in 2004 at the Faculty of Law, National University Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. She has a Master in Law (LLM) session 2004/2005, from Queen Mary University of London, School of International Arbitration, on International and Comparative Dispute Resolution. She is an Advocate and a Professor of International Private Law at the National University of Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Rekha Rangachari, BA (New York University), JD (University of Miami School of Law), is Director of ADR Services for the New York Commercial Division of the American Arbitration Association/International Centre for Dispute Resolution (AAA/ICDR). Therein, she leads the New York Corporate InnovAAAtion Team, serving also on the Diversity Committee, spearheading initiatives for greater cross-cultural representation and collaboration, and on the AAA/ICDR Foundation Committee. She is a 2017 Recipient of the AAA/ICDR President’s Award for Service. Beyond the AAA/ICDR, Rekha serves as Member of the NYSBA DR Section Executive and Diversity Committees, Co-Chair of the NYSBA DR Section Arbitration Committee, Member of the New York City Bar’s Women in the Legal Profession Committee and Board Member of the New York Coalition of Women’s Initiatives, among other professional and personal affiliations. Rekha is admitted to practice law in the U.S. (New York).

Klaus Reichert has been a barrister in practice since 1992 with extensive experience as an international arbitrator and counsel in both commercial and investment treaty matters. He served as Chair of the Host Committee for ICCA Dublin 2008, marking the 50th Anniversary of the New York Convention.

Ashley R Riveira is an associate in Crowell & Moring's International Dispute Resolution Group and focuses her practice on international arbitration and litigation. Ashley's international experience includes disputes with Libya, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Uzbekistan, Peru, and El Salvador in forums such as the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), the International Centre for Dispute Resolution (ICDR), the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the International Arbitral Centre of the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber, and various United States District and Appellate Courts.

Antoine Romanetti is an associate with LALIVE with eight years experience, specialising in arbitration, public international law, corporate and banking law. He was admitted to the Paris Bar in 2000 and has been counsel in numerous investment treaty arbitrations under ICSID arbitration rules, ICSID annulment proceedings, and international commercial arbitration proceedings. He has also been secretary to arbitral tribunals in several ICC arbitrations and to a Commission of Conciliation in a major oil case. Antoine holds LL.M. in International Commercial Arbitration of Queen Mary, University of London, and a postgraduate degree in corporate and tax law of the University of Aix-Marseille III. He is fluent in English, French and Spanish.

Noah Rubins trained in the United States and is Counsel with Freshfields' international arbitration and public international law practice groups in Paris. He frequently advises investors and states in investment arbitration cases, and also serves as arbitrator in both investment and commercial arbitration proceedings.

Borzu Sabahi is an attorney in the International Arbitration Group of Curtis Mallet Prevost Colt & Mosle LLP. He focuses his practice on representing governments and state-owned entities in investment arbitration matters. Mr Sabahi's experience includes serving as counsel and expert in cases brought under a number of bilateral investment treaties, NAFTA Chapter 11, and DR-CAFTA Chapter 10 and under the rules of UNCITRAL, ICSID, ICC, ICDR and LCIA. Mr Sabahi is an adjunct professor at Georgetown University Law Center and co-Director of the International Investment Law Center at the International Law Institute. He regularly speaks in conferences and has widely published on various aspects of international investment law.

Sajed A Sami is a Commercial Litigation and International Arbitration lawyer. He is currently conducting a World Bank/IFC research project on the impact of International Arbitration on Investment Climate in Bangladesh. Prior to relocating to Dhaka, Sajed completed his clerkship at the ICC's International Court of Arbitration in Paris, a highly coveted and prestigious role. Sajed has had some excellent international arbitration experience, most recently obtained in Washington DC. He has been involved in number of high profile international arbitration cases, providing legal advice in both strategic and analytic capacity. Sajed holds a Master of Laws (with Distinction) degree in International Legal Studies from Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC. He is qualified in the US, UK and Bangladesh, and has practiced law in all these jurisdictions.

Claudio O Saucedo Pagola is the Deputy Director General for International Affairs at the Directorate General of Foreign Investment in the Ministry of Economy, where he is responsible for the negotiation of International Investment Agreements. Previously, he was Legal and International Affairs Advisor of the President's Office for Public Policy, and Legal Counsel of the Escuela Iberoamericana de Gobierno y Políticas Públicas. He was also Legal Director for the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation, at the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare. He served as Head of Department of NAFTA and Bilateral Investment Treaties, and Deputy Director of International Agreements from 1997-2001. In this capacity, he was a member of the Mexican delegation for the Free Trade Agreement between Mexico and the European Union, and a member of the Mexican delegation for several IIAs. Claudio was Associate and Legal Counsel, at Chapa Maldonado and Partners, S.C., and taught Investment and Globalization at the Law Department of the Universidad de Las Americas, Mexico City.

Christoph H Schreuer is Of Counsel with the law offices of Wolf Theiss Vienna and a former Professor of Law at the University of Vienna. He is a graduate of the Universities of Vienna, Cambridge and Yale. He is a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and a member of the ICSID Panel of Conciliators and Arbitrators. He is an arbitrator in ICSID and UNCITRAL arbitrations. He was the chairman of the ILA Committee on the Law of Foreign Investment. Over an academic career spanning forty years, he has published numerous articles and several books in the field of international law. Since 1992, he has focused on international investment law. The main product of this activity is a 1500 page commentary on the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States under the title "The ICSID Convention: A Commentary" (2d ed 2009). He has written expert opinions in numerous ICSID cases.

Kristofer Schwarzrock is currently at Snyder Kearney, LLC, in Columbia, Maryland where he works primarily in securities and investment law. He received his undergraduate degree in Political Science from Illinois Wesleyan in 2002, and then went on to receive his JD from Hamline University School of Law in 2005, and his LLM from Queen Mary, University of London in 2006.

Wenhua Shan holds PhD degrees from the University of Cambridge (Trinity College), UK and Xiamen University, China, respectively. His recent publications include Chinese Investment Treaties: Policy and Practice (co-author, Oxford University Press, forthcoming), The Legal Framework of EU-China Investment Relations - A Critical Appraisal (Hart Publishing 2005), Redefining Sovereignty in International Economic Law (chief editor, Hart Publishing 2008), and numerous articles in journals such as American Journal of Comparative Law, Journal of World Trade and the Journal of World Investment and Trade. He is a member of the International Academy of Comparative Law, Vice-President of the Chinese Society of European Laws, Standing Director of the Chinese Society of International Economic Law and Editor-in-General of the China and International Economic Law Series (Hart Publishing). He is a qualified and licensed Chinese Lawyer (Barrister and Solicitor) since 1994 and currently serves as Senior Consultant at Haoliwen PRC Attorneys, Shanghai and an Arbitrator at various arbitration authorities.

Anthony Sinclair is an associate in the International Arbitration Group of Allen & Overy LLP. He has been counsel and adviser in several bilateral investment treaty and Energy Charter Treaty arbitrations under ICSID and UNCITRAL arbitration rules, twice in ICSID annulment proceedings, and regularly in international commercial arbitration matters. Anthony advises both corporate clients and States on issues of public international law focusing on the substantive and procedural issues of investor-state arbitration under bilateral investment treaties and the Energy Charter Treaty as well as the practice and procedure of ICSID arbitrations and commercial arbitration generally. Anthony is the author of several published articles and chapters on commercial and investment treaty arbitration and related issues of public international law. He is a co-author of the second edition of The ICSID Convention: A Commentary (with Christoph Schreuer, Loretta Malintoppi, and August Reinisch).

Abby Cohen Smutny is recognized as a leading international arbitration expert whose practice focuses on international arbitration of investment disputes. She has served as counsel in dozens of investment arbitrations, representing both claimants and respondents, in cases before ICSID and its Additional Facility, the ICC, the Vienna International Arbitral Centre, the LCIA, as well as in ad hoc arbitration, such as under the UNCITRAL Rules. Ms. Smutny is the chair of the Investment Treaty subcommittee of the Arbitration Committee of the IBA, formerly a member of the Executive Council and the Executive Committee of the American Society of International Law, formerly Chair of the International Law Section of the Bar Association of the District of Columbia, a Member of the Board of the Institute for Transnational Arbitration, and a member of the Investment Treaty Forum of the British Institute for Comparative and International Law.

Frédéric Gilles Sourgens' teaching and scholarship focuses on international dispute resolution, with a particular emphasis on resolution of disputes involving political risk. Prior to joining Washburn Law, Professor Sourgens practiced international arbitration in the Washington, DC office of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy and the Houston office of Fulbright & Jaworski and was an Adjunct Professor of Law at Georgetown University Law Center.

Kevin C Stemp (LL.M. London; J.D. Columbia) practices in the Arbitration, Antitrust and Competition, International Trade, and Securities Enforcement groups of WilmerHale. Also, he counsel's clients in Asia, Europe and the United States on a wide range of issues. In addition to being admitted to the bars of New York and Washington DC, Mr. Stemp is a Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA), Professional Risk Manager (PRM), and a Certified Public Accountant (CPA). He has also spent time at the International Court of Arbitration in Paris, and the Court of First Instance of the European Communities in Luxembourg.

Ole Spiermann is a partner with Bruun & Hjejle and co-chair of the firm?s litigation and arbitration group specialising in investment arbitration and commercial arbitration. Between 2005 and 2009, Spiermann held the chair in international law at the University of Copenhagen. He is a member of the Executive Council of the International Law Association and the OSCE Court of Conciliation and Arbitration. Spiermann holds university degrees in law from the University of Copenhagen (BA, 1995; LL.M., 1998) and the University of Cambridge (LL.M., 1996; Ph.D., 2000). His academic work concentrates on resolution of international disputes. Spiermann has been awarded the Gold Medal by the University of Copenhagen (1994) and the Idman Prize for the best Nordic book in public or private international law (2007).

Jeff Sullivan is a Senior Associate in the International Arbitration Group of Allen & Overy LLP in London. He specialises in public international law and international arbitration. He has been counsel in numerous investment treaty arbitrations under ICSID and the UNCITRAL arbitration rules, as well as in numerous international commercial arbitration proceedings under the ICC and LCIA rules. He has also advised States on the negotiation and drafting of bilateral and multilateral trade and investment treaties. Mr Sullivan is a US qualified and trained lawyer. He spent 5 years practicing litigation and arbitration in Washington DC prior to joining Allen & Overy. He is also the author of several articles on investment law and international arbitration.

Abhishek Tewari is an advocate practicing primarily in the Supreme Court of India and the Delhi High Court. He obtained his LLB degree from the NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad in 2004. Abhishek has, in the past, advised and represented the Government of India and several State-owned enterprises on issues pertaining to infrastructure contract, taxation, and constitutional law. He has represented Indian and overseas clients in SIAC, Swiss Rules and domestic arbitrations.  He also advises Indian companies in respect of World Bank Sanction Board proceedings. In 2013, Abhishek acted as legal counsel to the Justice JS Verma Committee, and assisted in the formulation of landmark recommendations for criminal law reform in India.  

Sylvia T Tonova is an associate in the Washington DC office of White & Case and practices with the International Arbitration and Litigation Groups. She has experience in representing sovereigns, intergovernmental institutions and companies in international arbitration and litigation matters. Ms Tonova's recent experience includes representation of Bulgaria in Plama Consortium Limited v. Republic of Bulgaria (ICSID Case No. ARB/03/24) and Romania in EDF (Services) Ltd v. Romania (ICSID Case No. ARB/05/13) and S&T Oil Equipment & Machinery v. Romania (ICSID Case No. ARB/07/13). Ms Tonova also represented a company before the International Arbitral Centre of the Austrian Federal Economic Chamber in a dispute relating to a joint venture in Uzbekistan. Ms Tonova graduated in 2005 with a Juris Doctor, cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center.

Sherlin Tung is currently the Litigation and Arbitration Counsel for Semperit Holdings AG in Vienna (Austria). Sherlin was previously Deputy Counsel with the Secretariat of the International Chamber of Commerce International Court of Arbitration / SICANA, Inc. in New York. Before the opening of the New York office, Sherlin was Deputy Counsel with the Secretariat of the ICC Court of Arbitration in Hong Kong. Sherlin began her career in international arbitration in Zurich, Switzerland, working under the direct supervision of Dr. Pierre A. Karrer where she acted as Tribunal Secretary, assisting Dr. Karrer in over 40 complex international arbitration matters. Sherlin is qualified to practice law in the States of California and New York (U.S.A.). Sherlin graduated from the University of San Diego School of Law and receive her Masters of Law in International Commercial Arbitration from Stockholm University. 

Anastasiya Ugale is a Special Legal Consultant in the Global Disputes practice group of Jones Day.  She represents private companies and sovereign states in investment treaty and commercial arbitration, with a particular focus on Russia and CIS disputes. She also provides advisory services to governments on issues of public international law under bilateral and multilateral investment treaties.  Anastasiya's experience includes representation of private companies in international arbitration disputes against sovereign states under the UNCITRAL, ICSID, and ICC rules. Her industry experience includes disputes in gold, coal and uranium mining, oil exploration and production, agriculture, and large-scale farming.

Baiju S Vasani, a Counsel with Crowell & Moring's International Dispute Resolution Group resident in the firm's Washington D.C. and London offices, focuses his practice exclusively on international investment and commercial arbitration covering various sectors and industries across the globe. Born in London, England, Baiju has earned four law degrees (LLB, LLM, BCL and JD) from the U.K. (London and Oxford) and the U.S. (Northwestern), and has been awarded an Exhibition Scholarship, two Barlow, Lyde & Gilbert Awards and the Law Society Prize. He was admitted as a Harmsworth Scholar to the Middle Temple in 1999, where he was called to the Bar. Baiju is currently admitted to practice in Texas, the District of Columbia and as a Solicitor in England & Wales.

Gita Veselá is presently Legal Counsel for a company specialising in the Real Estate Business. While finishing her last year at law school, she joined the Rowan Legal Law Firm. While at Rowan Legal, she was a member of the legal team dealing with international commercial arbitrations and investment treaty arbitrations. Between 2005 and 2006, Ms Veselé participated in a project on the translation of the textbook Constitutional Law of the Czech Republic written by Dr Klíma into the English language. Currently Ms Veselé is studying at the Charles University in Prague to become J.D and her dissertation is concerned with the bilateral investment treaties in the Czech Republic.

Jessica Villaverde is a Visiting International Scholar at Crowell & Moring in Washington DC. Jessica is a lawyer from Mexico, where she studied law and graduated with honors in 2003 from the Universidad Iberoamericana. She was granted the Fulbright Scholarship to study her master degree in the U.S. and obtained an LL.M. degree from Columbia University Law School in 2008. Before coming to the US, Jessica worked at Creel, García-Cuéllar, Aiza y Enríquez, S.C., one of the leading full-service law firms in Mexico, where she specialized in environmental law and actively worked on various domestic and international transactions from a wide range of business and industries. During her stay in New York City, Jessica worked as an intern at the Natural Resources Defense Council where she collaborated on environmental matters related to NAFTA.

Robert Volterra is Co-Chair of the Latham & Watkins International Dispute Resolution Practice and head of the firm's Public International Law Group. He is also a Visiting Professor at University College, University of London (UCL). He represents governments, international organizations and companies on a wide range of public international law and international dispute resolution issues, including: international investment agreements; international arbitration and litigation; diplomatic and consular law; boundaries and territorial integrity; State responsibility; treaty interpretation; ICSID; NAFTA; the Energy Charter Treaty; trans-boundary resources and pipelines; joint-development zones and straddling resource regimes. He has acted as counsel and advocate before the International Court of Justice and ad hoc international arbitration tribunals, including under the Permanent Court of Arbitration, ICSID, ICC, SCC, LCIA, UNCITRAL, WTO and UNCLOS rules. He regularly sits as an arbitrator on international arbitral tribunals.

André von Walter is a lecturer at the Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne and an Academic Counsel at the International Investment Law Centre Cologne (IILCC). Since 2007, he has been a lecturer for international economic law at the University of Chile. He is also a former Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Public International Law, University of Bonn and former consultant at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). He studied at the Universities of Cologne, Paris I (Panthéon-Sorbonne) and the Ecole Nationale d'Administration (ENA). He has publications in the fields of public international law, international economic law and international investment arbitration.

Matthew Weiniger is partner in Herbert Smith LLP's international arbitration group and Head of its public international law practice. He is a solicitor advocate with substantial experience of advising and representing clients in investment disputes. Matthew is co-author of Investment Treaty Arbitration - Substantive Principles (OUP, 2007) and is also a Visiting Professorial Fellow at the Centre for Commercial Law Studies, Queen Mary, University of London.

Thomas Yates' practice includes international commercial arbitration, general commercial litigation and public law and property litigation. He has acted for a number of multinational corporations in arbitral proceedings and has appeared before the High Court in applications under the Arbitration Act 1996, including the reported decision of Leibinger v. Stryker Trauma in which a challenge to an arbitral partial award was successfully struck out on the grounds of issue estoppel, time-bar and exclusion under s.73. Outside of arbitration, he acted for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in a successful appeal before the House of Lords relating to the Kingdom's entitlement to state immunity on behalf of itself and its officers (Jones v. Ministry of Interior Al-Mamlaka Al-Arabiya AS Saudiya). Thomas has a postgraduate diploma in international commercial arbitration and has passed the CIArb arbitration award writing exam. He has contributed a number of articles to publications including Mealey's International Arbitration Report and Transnational Dispute Management.

Laura Yvonne Zielinski is an associate with Eversheds in Paris, specializing in public international law and international commercial and investment treaty arbitration. A native of Germany, Laura studied in France, Spain and the US. She obtained her first law degree from Sciences Po Paris and holds an LLM from Columbia Law School. She is New York qualified and is fluent in German, French and English with working knowledge of Spanish.